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Application of Cloning to the Production of Biopharmaceuticals to Treat Human and Animal Disease

Eric Overström. Professor, Tufts University, School of Veterinary Medicine

    Health Care: Human & Animals

    Nuclear Transfer – Cloning


    • Proven methodology in several species, recent reports of success in Sheep, cattle & pigs
    • Good efficiency, < ~ 98% of offspring are transgenic, demonstrates stable transgene integration & expression
    • Germline transgenesis
    • Less costly due to transfection/selection in vitro


    • Methodology not optimized in domestic animals
    • Strategies for “knockout” & “knockin” constructs

    Table 1. Development of caprine embryos reconstructed by nuclear transfer using CFF6 transgenic fetal somatic cells

    Nuclear transfer protocols  Metaphase
    II- EtOH
    Oocytes reconstructed  138  92  55
    Oocyte lysis (%)  67 (48.5)  38 (41.3)  23 (41.8)
    Embryo cleavage (%)  48 (34.8)  41 (44.6)  31 (58.4)
    Embryos transferred (%)  37 (34)  38 (41.3)  27 (49.1)
    Recipients  15  14  9
    Ultrasound positive (%)
    30 days 
    9 (60)  11 (78.6)  5 (55.5)
    40 days  1 (6.7) 1 (7.1) 0
    60 days  1 (6.7) 1 (7.1) 0
    Term pregnancy (%) 1 (6.7) 1 (7.1) 0
    Offspring  1 2 0
    % of embryos transferred  2.1 5.2 0
    % of embryos reconstructed 0.7 2.2 0


    Table 2. rhAT expression in CFF6-1 goat milk from an induced lactation

    CFF6-1 induced
    Lactation day 
    hAT concentration
    hAT activity
    Day 3   4.7 N/D
    Day 5  5.8  20.5
    Day 6  5.0  18.3
    Day 7  4.7  15.6
    Day 8  4.1  14.4
    Day 9  3.7  14.6

    N/D: not determined


    • Rational application of animal cloning to the production of biopharmaceuticals
    • Benefit to human and animal health
    • Animal welfare is not compromised
    • Advance fundamental understanding of mechanism that regulate normal and abnormal cell growth

    Email link | Feedback | Contributed by: Boston University. Video adapted from the Issues for the Millennium Workshop

    Application of Cloning to the Production of Biopharmaceuticals to Treat Human and Animal Disease

    Introduction: Jensine Andresen and Robert Neville
    John Westling - Introduction: Do we have dominion over ourselves?
    Overcoming Preconception Relating to Assisted Reproductive Technologies
    Implications of Animal Cloning Experiments for the Potential Cloning of Human Beings
    Production of Embryonic Stem Cells from Differentiated Somatic Cells
    Xenotransplantation and its Associated Safety and Ethical Issues
    Excluding Life from Patenting: Arguments against the Patenting of Genes
    Science Panel Discussion
    Ethical Challenges in a Post Genome Era
    Human Rights and the New Genetics
    Human Rights and Cloning
    Democratizing Decision Making Relating to Biotechnology
    Genetics, the Market, and Policy
    Much Ado About Mutton: An Ethical Review of the Cloning Controversy
    Why Worry about Human Cloning?
    Modified Natural-Law Approach to Genetic Technologies
    Ethics Panel Discussion
    The World is Our Parish...So...?
    Re-engineering Creation: Theological Reservations Concerning Genetic Technology
    Possible Presbyterian Responses to Cloning
    Biostewardish Updates
    No, Not Yet, Maybe, and Why Not: Protestant Ambivalence Or Moral Discretion?
    Beginning Reflections of One Unitarian Universalist on Cloning and Genetic Technologies
    A Catholic Perspective on Cloning and Stem Cell Research
    Created in Whose Image and Likeness? An Orthodox Christian Approach to Human Cloning
    Thomas Shannon - "Playing God"
    But Who Speaks for Me? The Need for the Religous Voice in Bioethics
    In God's Garden: Creation and Cloning in Jewish Thought
    A Jewish Perspective on Cloning and Other Techniques to Overcome Infertility
    Islamic Perspectives on Cloning and Genetic Enginerring
    A Hindu View based on Dharma, Karma and Yoga of Human Cloning and Genetic Technologies
    The Bioethics of Interdependence: Shin Buddhist Attitudes on Human Cloning
    Moral Imagination
    Interreligious Panel Discussion
    Science and the Courts
    Beyond Biology: Regulating Ownership in a Knowledge-based Economy
    Biotechnology and International Trade
    Disharmonization in Agricultural Biotechnology
    Historical Notes Relating to the Patenting of Biological Inventions
    Should Morality be Within the Purview of Patent Law?
    The International Treatment of Biotechnological Intellectual Property (BIP)
    Legal Issues Panel Discussion
    Science, Politics and Ethics of Cloning and Genetic Engineering: Who will Decide the Future of Humankind?
    Cloning and Beyond: Making Laws for Making Babies
    Issues For the Millennium: Cloning and Genetic Technologies - Index


    Boston University

    See also:

    Pain and Suffering
    Books on Biology, Genetics and Theology
    Dolly the Cloned Sheep
    Egg Manipulation
    DNA Double-Helix