1. General Term: Classical Thermodynamics
Classical Thermodynamics A branch of physics developed in the nineteenth century that deals with the
study of heat, and thus with the collision and interaction of particles in
large, near-equilibrium systems.
In the 19th century,
2. Physics Topic: Thermodynamics, Chaos, and Complexity
said to be irreversible, thermodynamics
seemed to point to an "arrow of time" contrary to classical
mechanics , for which all phenomena are reversible in time.
By the end of the nineteenth century, it had been shown that
3. Divine Action Topic: Peacocke, Arthur. Chance and Law in Irreversible ...
then turns to
irreversible thermodynamics and theoretical biology. Thermodynamics is the science of the possible which prescribes
how nature can behave. Classical thermodynamics , with its focus on systems in
equilibrium, centers on
4. General Term: Classical Mechanics
rooted in classical physics, was carried over and applied to all macroscopic
systems in nature, including those described by thermodynamics, geology,
meteorology, evolutionary biology , and even those now studied using
5. General Term: Non-Linear, Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Non-Linear , Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics A branch of physics developed in the latter half of the twentieth century
that deals with systems of particles that are far from the near-equilibrium
conditions studied in classical thermodynamics and
6. Physics Topic: Quantum Physics
fundamental break with classical physics after general
relativity came gradually over a thirty year period (1900-1930)
with the development of quantum mechanics by dozens of physicists
including Planck , Einstein , Bohr , Schrödinger,
7. Physics Topic: Physics and Cosmology in the 20th Century
Meanwhile, classical thermodynamics , developed in the 19th century,
led to non-linear , non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its application
to systems showing the spontaneous emergence of order from chaos
(1960's - present).